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The permanent magnet is a natural product, also known as a natural magnet, or it can be manufactured artificially (the strongest magnet is a NdFeB magnet). A material with a wide hysteresis line, high coercivity, and high remanent magnetism, which remains constant once magnetized. Also known as permanent magnets and hard magnetic materials. In applications, permanent magnets work in the second quadrant of the demagnetized part of the deep magnetic saturation and magnetization hysteresis line. Permanent magnets should have the highest possible coercivity Hc, remanence Br, and maximum magnetic energy product (BH) m in order to ensure maximum magnetic energy storage and stable magnetic properties.
Permanent magnet materials can be divided into two categories: traditional permanent magnet materials, such as Alnico and ferrite, with low magnetic properties and low prices; and new rare-earth permanent magnet materials, such as samarium magnets (e.g. SmCo) and neodymium magnets (NdFeB), with high magnetic properties and high prices.
(1) Alloy permanent magnet materials
Including rare earth permanent magnet materials (NdFeB Nd2Fe14B), samarium cobalt (SmCo), aluminum nickel cobalt (AlNiCo)
(2) Ferrite permanent magnets (Ferrite)
The different production processes are divided into
Sintered Ferrites: Sintered NdFeB magnets are produced by smelting through the airflow mill and have a very high coercivity value and a very high magnetic energy, the maximum magnetic energy product (BHmax) is more than 10 times higher than Ferrite. The mechanical properties are also very good, allowing different shapes to be cut and drilled. The maximum working temperature of the high-performance product is 200°C.
Due to its material content, it is prone to rust and corrosion, so the surface must be tinted in different ways depending on the requirements. (e.g. galvanized, nickel, environmentally friendly zinc, environmentally-friendly nickel, nickel-copper-nickel, environmentally friendly nickel-copper-nickel, etc.). Very hard and brittle, with high resistance to demagnetization, high cost/performance ratio, not suitable for high operating temperatures (>200°C).
Bonded Ferrites: Bonded NdFeB is a composite NdFeB permanent magnet made by evenly mixing NdFeB powder with a binder such as resin, plastic or low melting point metal, and then compressing, extruding, or injection molding. The product can be formed in one go, without secondary processing, and can be made into various complex shapes directly. The bonded NdFeB has magnetic properties in all directions and can be processed into NdFeB compression molds and injection molds. High density, excellent magnetic properties, good corrosion resistance, good temperature stability.
Injection-molded ferrites: very high precision, easy to make thin-walled rings or thin magnets with complex anisotropic shapes
These three processes are divided into isotropic and anisotropic magnets depending on the orientation of the magnetic crystals.
Here are some permanent magnet examples:
Permanent magnets are available in a variety of shapes, such as standard rings, rods, and discs, as well as customized shapes such as trapezoidal, curved, beveled, and even "bowler hat" shapes.
Permanent magnets are used in a wide range of applications in electronics, electrical, mechanical, transport, medical and household products. They are used in wind power generation, new energy vehicles, inverter air conditioners, energy-saving lifts, intelligent manufacturing, subdivisions such as permanent magnets for loudspeakers and telephone receivers, magnetic systems for magnetoelectric meters, magnetic poles in generators and permanent magnet motors, permanent magnet devices for machine manufacturing (e.g. permanent magnetic suction cups for surface grinding machines), magnetic levitation systems, magnetic bearings, magnetic separation systems, magnetic ore dressing, magnetic water purification systems, magnetron tubes, magnetic systems for proton accelerators, etc. magnetic systems, etc.
A permanent magnet is an object that retains its magnetic properties for a long time without an applied magnetic field. Depending on the material, permanent magnets can be made from ferromagnetic materials such as iron and nickel, which of these materials will feel a force.
Ferromagnetic metals are strongly attracted by a magnetic force.
Electromagnets (solenoids) are made by converting electrical energy into magnetic energy and then from magnetic energy into kinetic energy (electrical energy → magnetic energy → kinetic energy). The design of electrical energy, therefore, involves voltage, current, resistance, and power. The design of magnetic energy involves magnetic induction, magnetic flux, etc. The design of kinetic energy processes involves a three-dimensional relationship between stroke, force, and time.
The design and manufacture of electromagnets is therefore a very comprehensive industry, which, like resistors, capacitors, and relays, is classified as an electronic component and is used in a wide range of applications.
Permanent magnets can be natural, also known as natural magnets (a valuable national resource), or artificially manufactured (the strongest magnets are NdFeB magnets). A material with a wide hysteresis line, high coercivity, high remanence, and a constant magnetism once magnetized. Also known as permanent magnets and hard magnetic materials. In applications, permanent magnets work in the second quadrant of the demagnetized part of the deep magnetic saturation and magnetization hysteresis line. Permanent magnets should have the highest possible coercivity Hc, remanence Br and maximum magnetic energy product (BH) m to ensure maximum magnetic energy storage and stable magnetic properties.
Their points of difference.
The magnetic poles of an electromagnet can be changed, this is determined by the positive and negative poles of the energized solenoid and the direction of winding of the coil. Permanent magnets, on the other hand, have fixed N and S poles.
To make a permanent magnet, the ferromagnetic material is heated at incredibly high temperatures while being exposed to a strong external magnetic field. This causes the individual magnetic domains in the material to align with the direction of the external magnetic field until all the domains are aligned and the material reaches its magnetic saturation point. The material is then cooled and the aligned magnetic domains are locked in position. This alignment of the domains gives the magnet anisotropy. After the external magnetic field has been removed, the hard magnetic material will retain most of its domain alignment, forming a strong permanent magnet.
How a permanent magnet works are all about its atomic structure. All ferromagnetic materials produce a naturally occurring, albeit weak, magnetic field generated by the electrons surrounding their nuclei. These groups of atoms can be oriented in the same direction, and each of these groups of atoms is known as a single magnetic domain. Like all permanent magnets, each magnetic domain has its own north and south pole. When a ferromagnetic material is not magnetized, its magnetic domains point in a random direction and their magnetic fields cancel each other out.
It varies considerably from material to material. In the case of ferrite, it is mainly the cost of the tooling, so please feel free to ask us for a specific price.
how long does a permanent magnet last
A permanent magnet is, as the name suggests, an object that retains its magnetic properties for a long time without an applied magnetic field. After 11.6 years of use under normal conditions, the Alnico flux loses 5% of its magnetic flux, the ferrite loss cannot be measured.
Permanent magnet manufacturers have a first-class production line, high precision and good quality products, welcome to discuss! Our permanent magnets have been widely used in the fields of electroacoustics, motors, instruments, meters, automatic control, etc.